ፕሮፌስር አሽናፊ ከበደ በ1930 በአዲስ አበባ ተወለዱ፣ የሙዚቃ ትመህርታችውንም በአሜሪካ ክ Eastman School of Music ማስትሬታችዉን አንዲሁም ፒችዲያቸውን ደግሞ ክ Wesleyan University በ1963 አግኝተዋል። ኢትዮጵያዊ ኮምፖሰር ፣ኮንዳክተር ፣ኤትኖሚዝኮሎጂስት፣የሙዚቃ አስተማሪ አንዲህም ደራሲም ነበሩ ።
በኢትዮጵያ ሙዚቃም ከሚታወሱ ምሁራን ሙዚቀኞች አንዱ ሲሆኑ የያሬድ ሙዚቃ ትምህርት ቤት አንዲመሰርት ግንባር ቀደሙን ሚና የተጫወቱም አሳቸው ነበሩ ።
ገርማዊ ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ስላሴ ቡልጋሪያን ለመጎብኘት ሲሄዱ የቡልጋሪያ መንግስት በኢትዮጵያ አንድ የሙዚቃ ትምህርት ቤት አንዲያቁአቁም በጠየቁት መሰርት የያሬድ ሙዚቃ ትመህርት ቤት ሊቃቁም ችሎዋል ። ለጥቂት ጊዜያት የትምህርት ቤቱ ዳይሬክተር ሆነው ከሰሩ ቦሀላ በዘመኑ ከነበሩ ባለስልጣናት ጋር ባለመግባባታቸው ወደ አሜሪካ ሊሄዱ ችለዋል ። አናም በፍሎሪዳ አስቴት ዩኒቨርሲት በጥናት አና በማደራጀት ሰራዎች አገልግለዋል ።
ዶ/ር አሽናፊ በጥቁር አፍሪካውያንና አፍሪካዊ አሜርካውያን የሙዚቃና ዳንስ ባህል፣ በኢትዮጵያ ሙዚቃ አድገትና ባህላዊ መሰርት፣ በአዝማሪዎች የሙዚቃ ባህልና በመሳሰሉት ረአስ ጉዳዮች ላይ በርካታ መፃህፍትን በመፃፍም በኤትኖሚዝኮሎጂ ዘርፍ ከፍተኛ አስተዋፅኦ አደርገዋል ። የልብወለድ ስራዎችንም አንዲሁ አበርክተዋል ። ፕሮፌስር አሽናፊ "አረኛው ባለዋሽንት " የተባለዉንና ታዋቂ የሆነውን ሰራቸዉን ሃንጋሪ ውስጥ ለመጀመሪያ ጊዜ በሲምፎኒ ኦርኬስትራ አዘጋጅተው አቅርበዋል። Confession አንዲሁም Roots of Black Music የተባሉት መፃፍቶች ከታዋቂ የአንግሊዘኛ ፅሁፎቻቸው ጥቂቶቹ ናቸው ። ፕሮፌስር አሽናፊ ለ ኢትዮጵያ ሙዚቃ አድገት ረጅም ህልም የነበራችው የሙዚቃ ሰው ነበሩ።
Reference: 20th-century Ethiopian composers
Mahber is traditionally a religious feasting association to commemorate various saints or angels such as Kidus Yohanes (St. John), Kidus Georgis (St. George), Kidest Mariam (St. Mary) etc. every month of the year.
The membership is usually limited to twelve persons who have the same patron saint but could be a little more in number. The feast is prepared in turn by members of the Mahber who are followers of the Orthodox Church. It takes place at the home of the members. The member is expected to provide as many foods and drinks as he or she can afford.
In every Mahber there is usually a priest who is not a member who gets invited. In most cases, he is the godfather of the organizer and he blesses the foods and drinks, breaks the festive bread and opens the feast.
Reference: Ethiopian History and Traditions
እንቁጣጣሽ (Enqutatash) which means “Gift of Jewels” is Ethiopian New Year day and it is celebrated on Meskerem 1 on the Ethiopian calendar which is September 11 or 12 when it is a leap year on Gregorian calendar. It is also the beginning fall, after the rainy winter season is over and when beautiful flowers are blossoming all over the cities. For Ethiopians this is a month of hope, celebration and exchange of gifts.
This New Year festival has been celebrated for centuries and legends associate it with Queen of Sheba saying that when Queen Sheba returned after visiting King Solomon, her chiefs welcomed her by replenishing her treasury with “Enqu” or jewels
The New Year evening at the end of Pagueme (the leap year) is the feast of Saint John in which torch (Chibo) is lit and neighbors come out and sing and dance together around the torch.
The next day is እንቁጣጣሽ (New Year) is celebrated with exchange of gifts, cards and girls singing አበባየሆሽ (Abebayehosh) in groups and presenting bouquet of flowers, walking from house to house.
Reference: Ethiopian Festivals
After the completion of the railway line in 1917, the statue of the lion of Judah, which was built by the French railway company, was inaugurated in January 1930 in the presence of Queen Zewditu and Emperor Haile Selassie.
When the fascist Italians invaded Ethiopia in 1936, the statue was taken to Djibouti by the order of the Italian military commander Rodolfo Graziani. Then it was again sent to Italy and erected at Esderio square.
After 30 years it was returned to Ethiopia with the agreement of the governments of Italy and Ethiopia. On January 1964 it was re-erected at ‘Lagahare” in front of Ethio-Djibouti railway station on the same month and day it was first inaugurated.
On the lower part of the statue are the carved faces of Emperor Menelik II, Queen Zewditu, Ras Mekonen and Emperor Haile Selassie. Also on the upper part of the statue is the lion of Judah, raised left foreleg and carrying the Ethiopian flag on a crossbar resting on its shoulder.
Reference: Addis Ababa City Administration office
The daughter of Mayor Gebru Desta Sinidu Gebru was born in 1914 in Addis Alem.
Sinidu came to Addis Ababa where she attended Swedish Mission School and In 1929 she went to Switzerland along with her sister Woizero Yewibdar later renamed “Imahoy Tsigemariam”).
During her stay in Switzerland and France she pursued her education and received diploma. She also studied literature, history, French and English languages. Upon her return to Ethiopia, Sinidu started to serve as a teacher in St George School located in Addis Ababa.
After a few years’ services, Italian fascists invaded Ethiopia. During that period, she went on a mission along with the Ethiopian Red Cross volunteers and rendered medical services to members of the Ethiopian army. After having been fully aware of the fact that Addis Ababa was under the fascist enemy occupation, Sinidu made her way to the western part of the county, Ilubabor (Gore), where she joined the patriotic forces. But unfortunately, she fell into enemy hands and was brought back to Addis Ababa along with other patriots. She was then banished to an island called Azinara Island located in Italy where she stayed under imprisonment.Sinidu returned to her country after liberation from enemy occupation was ensured.
Following her return to Ethiopia, Sinidu served as director of Wezero Sihin School and Empress Menen School located in Dessie town and then Addis Ababa respectively. In due course, Sinidu went on consolidating her active participation in political and administrative areas.
As a result of such efforts, she became the first female parliamentary elect. She then became member of the senate and was elected as a Vice President. Besides serving as vice president, Sinidu had saved as: President of the Ethiopian Red Cross Society, Chief Secretary and Administrator in the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, and as education attaché in West Germany for three years. Sinidu is a well-known literary figure and playwright with many works to her name in Amharic language. These include “Kokeb yallew yaberal Gena”, “Yenuro Sihtet”, “Yelibe Metsahal”,” Kemaichew Melse” and many other literary works.
In recognition of her literary works and her services, Addis Ababa University awarded Sinidu with an Honorary Doctorate Degree in 2005. Such an iron lady and literary giant, the Honorable Doctor Sinidu died at the age of 93 in 2009
Please refer this sewasew link to read about her sister “Imahoy Tsigemariam” (እማሆይ ፅጌማርያም) http://www.sewasew.com/phrases/1005/definitions/934?withDetails=1
Reference: Ethiopian Artists History
Saint George church is located in the heart of Addis Ababa, in the place called Arada (that is why it is often referred as Arada Giorgis).
Emperor Menelik II dealt a crushing defeat on the forces of Italy on St. George’s day in 1896 at Adowa. In gratitude to saint George, who has served as a Patron Saint of the Empire, and of the Armed Forces, Emperor Menelik commissioned the construction of a church in his honor in the heart of Addis Ababa. The Italian prisoners of war assisted in the construction of the church as their government negotiated the terms of peace and their release.
The Church of Saint George was where Empress Zewditu was crowned Empress of Ethiopia in 1917, and where Emperor Haile Selassie was crowned in 1930. An equestrian statue of Emperor Menelik II stands in Menelik Square outside the main gates of the church. It was erected by Emperor Haile Selassie on the eve of his coronation in 1930. Also at the church is a large bell which was sent as a gift from Czar Alexander III of Russia to mark the dedication of the church.
During the Italian Fascist invasion of Ethiopia, an attempt was made on the life of the Italian Vice-Roy Graziani and in retaliation, the fascists launched a brutal massacre in Addis Ababa and during the course of this slaughter, they entered and torched the church of Saint George. Although the structure of the Cathedral survived the flames, the interior was completely gutted.
Following his restoration to the throne in 1941, Emperor Haile Selassie had the church restored, and new murals were painted by the famous Ethiopian artists, including Maître Artiste Afework Tekle.
Reference: Ethiopian History and churches
The statue symbolizes the anti-colonial struggle of Emperor Menelik who waged the Battle of Adwa, the climactic battle of the First Ethio-Italy War in 1896, and is witnessing Africa’s triumph over European colonialism.
It was ordered to be erected by Queen Zewditu, the daughter of Emperor Menelik II, for the memory of her father. It was drawn by the German architect Haertel Spengler and was made in Germany. Sadly before the erection of the monument, Queen Zewditu died in 1930. Thus, the then crown prince (Emperor Haile Selassie) inaugurated the monument on the eve of his coronation on the same year.
In 1936 Benito Mussolini ordered the destruction and hiding of the monument in order to make the humiliating defeat of Italians in Menelik’s hand at the battle of Adwa to be forgotten from the minds of all Ethiopians as well as the world. However, in 1941 when the invaders were driven out of the country, the monument was restored to its original place.
It is now located at piazza on the square of Emperor Menelik near St. George church.
The center of this square where we have the statue is also considered "ground zero" of the highways of the Nation
Reference: Ethiopian History